Researchers study lower atmosphere to answer remaining questions

While scientists have learned a lot about our planet, questions remain about the lowest part of the atmosphere where we live. Researchers at the NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory are looking for answers. Utilizing a series of instruments located in a mobile research unit, researchers are analyzing data gathered by those tools to improve severe weather forecasts.

The lowest mile or so of the atmosphere, known as the planetary boundary layer, is where several elements mix — from pollution to moisture — and how those elements mix and change during the day impact events in the atmosphere.

“Understanding the boundary layer can improve forecasts of severe weather, pollution, and several other things impacting the surface,” said Elizabeth Smith, NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory researcher.

In an effort to improve understanding, weather researchers with the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies at the University of Oklahoma and NOAA NSSL deployed two trailers decked out with a collection of weather instruments known as the Collaborative Lower Atmospheric Mobile Profiling System in fall 2020.

A research trailer known as CLAMPS parked in a grassy field near a power connector. In the background is an operational radar. The sky is overcast, cloudy and gray.
The Collaborative Lower Atmospheric Mobile Profiling System, or CLAMPS, in Norman, Oklahoma. CLAMPS was deployed near a weather radar and weather station as part of an experiment to better understanding the depth of the boundary layer. (Photo by James Murnan/NOAA)

The CLAMPS platforms were deployed near a weather radar and a weather station in Oklahoma as well as the National Weather Service Forecast Office in Shreveport, Louisiana. The fast-updating, high-resolution data collected provides a more detailed view of the atmosphere and its processes for researchers to analyze.

In addition, the Shreveport NWS Office utilized CLAMPS to monitor both fog and fire weather forecasts during CLAMPS deployment in the area. That office also noted interesting and surprising boundary layer behavior when smoke from fires raging in the western part of the United States infiltrated into the area.

NWS Shreveport Science and Operations Officer Brad Bryant said output from CLAMPS was particularly useful for refining fog and fire weather forecasts because both sets of parameters are closely tied to specifics of the boundary layer CLAMPS is tuned to monitor.

Research equipment parked on the green grass. Behind it is a building and tall operational weather radar.
The CLAMPS trailer in Shreveport, Louisiana at the NWS Forecast Office as part of an OU CIMMS and NOAA NSSL experiment. (Photo by Matthew Carney/OU)

CIMMS Researcher and Project Lead Jacob Carlin said the CLAMPS platform collects information more frequently than weather balloons launched daily by NWS forecasters across the nation. Although both methods gather similar information about the atmosphere, weather balloons are typically launched twice a day while CLAMPS gather data every couple of minutes.

More data can result in a more accurate representation of atmospheric processes at any moment. Data from the CLAMPS systems is combined with data from the NEXRAD radar, further enhancing researchers’ view of the atmosphere and what is happening.

This project is an extension of a recently published study that compared the twice-a-day balloon launch data with data from a nearby NEXRAD radar. Carlin’s team is going further, comparing CLAMPS minute data with a nearby NEXRAD radar and weather station.

“We want to understand how well this method performs with CLAMPS, because if it is able to reliably observe boundary layer height and development, then this method can improve forecasts and forecasting tools,” Carlin said.

With this new dataset, the researchers hope to learn more about how well NEXRAD radar can detect the boundary layer, expanding the capability of existing infrastructure at no additional cost.

Funding for this study was provided by the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies’ Director’s Discretionary Research Fund, which supports the piloting of small-scale innovative and experimental projects.

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NOAA researchers are working to make traveling in winter weather safer

Story posted on NOAA Research by Katie Valentine.

A team of scientists at NOAA’s National Severe Storms Laboratory and National Weather Service National Weather Service is working on ways to better forecast potentially dangerous winter weather to cut down on these impacts to travelers. Heather Reeves, a researcher at the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS) supporting NSSL, said the project is focusing on the smaller or more short-lived weather hazards — not the big, “snowmageddon” type storms.

“We have gotten really good at predicting when a big event is going to happen and what regions it will impact,” said Reeves, who is leading the research. “The real danger now are these events where people don’t have to stay inside. They can still go out and live their lives, but there may be moments where they need to exercise caution.”

Read the full story at research.noaa.gov.

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Information analysis: social science adds needed piece to the weather puzzle

Research Scientist Jack Friedman with University of Oklahoma Center for Applied Social Research observes and works in the National Weather Forecast Office in Huntsville, Alabama. Friedman is one of the several social science researchers involved in the VORTEX-Southeast project spring 2017 experiment. (NOAA NSSL)

Increasing our knowledge of severe storms and improving the tools used to forecast them has been the singular mission of the NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory since it was formed more than 50 years ago — until recently. Now NSSL researchers are expanding their focus to include people — how they receive, understand and interact with weather information.

A new report released this month by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine concludes that realizing the greatest return on investment from significant improvements in weather information will require a better understanding of how individuals, households and communities respond to weather forecasts, watches and warnings.

NSSL is already doing many of the recommendations mentioned in the report, said Kim Klockow, a research associate working at NSSL with the University of Oklahoma Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies. Dozens of researchers are integrating disciplines such as communication, psychology and education into the traditional meteorological research at NSSL.

“Meteorologists care about saving lives and property, and ultimately those goals depend on the actions people choose to take,” Klockow said. “Information is just one piece of the puzzle. Providing the public with information about possible dangers doesn’t stop the threats from having an impact, and it alone doesn’t motivate people to take action.

“In our research at NSSL, we have to account for the ways people understand what we’re saying, the things they’re able to do, and the things that motivate them.”

Klockow leads a new societal impacts group at NSSL created to ensure new technologies are useful and usable by the public, emergency managers and public broadcasters. Several recent projects are highlighted below.

Research in the Hazardous Weather Testbed

Each year, NSSL invites broadcast meteorologists, emergency managers and National Weather Service forecasters to the NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed in Norman, Oklahoma, to test new technology developed at NSSL and within NOAA.

“Our research needs to engage those who will be using it,” Klockow said. “We have them test what our researchers have developed to see if they can use it, or will use it.”

Next year, the researchers plan to invite larger private sector companies to participate in testbed experiments. These forecasters may provide new insights, Klockow said.

The NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed during the Spring 2017 experiment about the Geostationary Lighting Mapper. (Photo by James Murnan/ NOAA NSSL)

People’s responses to warnings
Recently, NSSL teamed up with OU’s Center for Risk and Crisis Management to analyze how the public receives and acts on weather warnings. This project, part of the broader Probability of What project, is to study the effectiveness of the current warning infrastructure. This information will help NSSL measure the impacts new technologies might have on the public.

“We are looking at providing more information between a watch and warning to fill the information gap and provide up to an hour of advanced notice for all kinds of severe weather,” Klockow said. “We need to know if it will be beneficial to people — if they will use that information — or if giving a slew of probabilities may be more difficult to understand.”

The POW research team is conducting nationwide surveys and small experiments to measure the public’s understanding of weather information.

Social science integral part of tornado study
How emergency managers and forecasters handle information during hazardous weather events is an important part of VORTEX-Southeast, a research program studying storms and tornadoes in the southeastern United States.

“VORTEX-SE is the first time social science has been integrated into a weather field campaign,” Klockow said. “When the physical science researchers deploy to the field, so do the social science researchers.”

Klockow said social scientists have embedded with local emergency managers and National Weather Service forecasters, studying how they receive information, process that information, and relay it to the public.

“We see if there are any information gaps, points of confusion, or breaks in the communication channels and how the process may be improved,” Klockow said.

Studying the latest technology
Part of informing the public about weather affecting them includes staying apprised of the latest and greatest technology. Klockow is researching the ATSC 3.0, a new television broadcast system offering more options, including advanced emergency alerts.

“It will fundamentally change the way TV works, so someone can point to the TV with their remote and get more detailed or local information during severe weather coverage,” Klockow said. “The viewer could pull up radar, probability plumes defined by NSSL research or timelines. This offers an amazing opportunity to get more information to the user. We have to make sure we are aware of this new technology and get it in sync with our research designs.”

Whether studying the structure of a thunderstorm, developing a new radar algorithm, improving a weather forecasting model, or analyzing the ways people receive weather information — every project at NSSL has at its heart the goal of minimizing the impacts of hazardous weather on society.

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Project utilizes radar technology for flood warnings

A new research project is already helping save lives and property with early flood notification after a stream in southern Oklahoma rose 10 feet in one hour.

Jonathan J Gourley, research hydrologist with the NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory, said the project will demonstrate the use of remote-sensing technology for better flood detection and improve downstream predictions by models. Researchers will deploy 14 stream radars throughout the United States that utilize remote sensing to measure the speed, depth, and flow rates in streams.

The stream radar device elevated above the water in Mill Creek, Oklahoma.

NSSL is leading several remote sensing in streams projects, known as Automated NonContact Hydrologic Observations in Rivers, or ANCHOR, with funding from NOAA’s Joint Technology Transfer Initiative. This part of the project is with The University of Oklahoma Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies and the project principal investigator Danny Wasielewski, an electronics engineer with OU CIMMS.

Walking through patches of poison ivy and trudging through deep mud, the research team installed the project’s second radar above a creek near Mill Creek, Oklahoma, in late July. It will monitor the stream’s water speed and depth, along with how quickly the water may rise during a hazardous weather event, and notify researchers and local stakeholders of the observed changes.

The first stream radar was deployed in April in Falls Creek near Davis, Oklahoma, and near Falls Creek camp, an area that has more than 55,000 visitors participating in youth camps and conferences each summer. As many as 7,500 campers may be downstream at any moment.

Within a few weeks, the Falls Creek installation provided useful data to the ANCHOR team.

The radar was in place taking measurements as the water transformed from a trickling stream to a raging river on May 19. Gourley received a notification indicating flash flood conditions, triggered by a sudden increase in the stream’s water flow. He cross-checked the project information with NSSL’s Flash Flood Forecast System and concluded flash flood conditions were occurring.

Based on this information, he notified Falls Creek officials, advising them to take precautions. One hour after the notification the river rose 10 feet. Fortunately, no visitors were at camp that week.

“The sensor provided real time information and text alerts were issued indicating an impending threat,” he said.

The event itself was rare, and measuring it was even more unprecedented.

“Capturing an event of this magnitude just a matter of weeks after we installed the instrument is very rare, equivalent to finding a needle in a haystack,” Gourley said.  

The increase in velocity indicated by the radar was a major insight in itself. The stream’s velocity increased an hour before the depth began to rise, providing additional time to respond to an impending flash flood.

“When we later went out, we saw the radar was damaged from debris flowing down river during the event created by a loss of soil composition,” Gourley said. “A tree fell on top of one radar cable and tore it from the mount, but it continued to operate.”

Deploying radars to measure water height, in combination with text alerts and notifications may impact water resource management practices and help save more lives from the number one severe weather killer – flooding.

The system being demonstrated for operational use during the two-year JTTI-funded project may offer a more cost-effective and accurate solution for estimating streamflow and flooding conditions than what is currently being used in the United States. Gourley said conventional gauging can be costly and the amount of conventional gauges used is generally going down because of the time and resources required.

ANCHOR’s team continues scouting for new radar installment locations. Installations will take place through 2017 with results expected in early- to mid-2018.

 

OU CIMMS Research Scientists Jorge Duarte Garcia and Danny Wasielewski install an anchor into a tree. The anchor ensures the radar device stays hoisted above the stream.
OU CIMMS Research Scientist Danny Wasielewski (right) adjusts the radar’s position while Jonathan J Gourley communicates the position of the radar. (Photos by James Murnan/NOAA NSSL)
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International collaboration benefits US, European forecasters

NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory Researcher Adam Clark at the European Severe Storms Laboratory Testbed this summer.

Weather doesn’t stop at borders. Nowhere is this more clear than in Europe, where two researchers working at the NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory went shoulder to shoulder with researchers in the European Severe Storms Laboratory Testbed this summer. The goal was to collaborate on forecast products and learn how NSSL technologies are used abroad.

“As scientists and meteorologists, we need to continue to talk because that’s how true knowledge transfer occurs,” said Darrel Kingfield, University of Oklahoma Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies researcher working at NSSL. “ESSL researchers came to work with us in the NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed a couple of years ago and this year we went to them.”

Darrel Kingfield presenting at the European Severe Storms Laboratory Testbed this summer.

During its sixth year, the ESSL Testbed program evaluated forecasts for high-impact weather. Like the HWT, the ESSL testbed serves as a forum to stimulate interaction between product developers and operational forecasters from throughout Europe. Also, lectures from several local and international experts help testbed participants enhance their knowledge and skills.

Different geography, systems

Kingfield and NSSL Research Scientist Adam Clark each spent a full week at ESSL’s testbed. What struck them was the difference in geography between the United States and Europe. Clark said ingredients needed for severe weather come together much differently in Europe than the U.S.

“You have the Mediterranean Sea and the Alps and that affects much of their weather,” Clark said.

Adam Clark working in the European Severe Storms Laboratory Testbed.

Along with geographical differences, Clark and Kingfield learned about the different weather prediction and monitoring systems operated by each European country. A variety of forecasting tools and methods are used throughout Europe, from government operated to privatized systems. This results in data, forecasting and verification inconsistencies.

“For example, after a tornado occurs in the U.S., officials observe and record where it occurred and how severe it was,” Kingfield explained. “Europeans rarely go out and assess tornado damage after a storm. Those surveys are reserved for most damaging events.”

As a result, Europe’s tornado database is not nearly as complete as the United States.

Sharing tools and techniques
While in the testbed, Kingfield and Clark gazed upon a few familiar products.

“The German Weather Service is using a lot of the same techniques developed at NSSL to interpret radar data,” Kingfield said. Some European meteorologists use several products developed in the U.S. by NSSL and OU CIMMS researchers. For instance, one technique allows them to use radar data to visualize the possible track of a tornado based on the storm’s rotation.

Collaboration is an important tool for forecasters and researchers. Participation in ESSL’s testbed allows researchers like Kingfield and Clark to share new technologies, experience new techniques and learn new systems. Opportunities like this allow researchers to collaborate on new products and technology, ultimately leading to better forecasts and warnings for the American public.

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Evaluation Of Human-made Structures Impact On Lightning Data Featured As Research Spotlight

As cell phone towers continue to fill the landscape, evaluating the influence of such human-made structures and their impact on lightning data continues to be a priority for one research scientist.

A recent article by Darrel Kingfield, a research scientist at the University of Oklahoma Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies working at the NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory, was selected by the editors of Geophysical Research Letters to be features as a Research Spotlight on EOS.org. The paper, “Antenna structures and cloud-to-ground lightning location: 1995-2015,” explores spatial analyses of cloud-to-ground lightning occurrences because of the rapid expansion of antenna towers across the United States.

Kristin Calhoun, an OU CIMMS research scientist also working at NOAA NSSL, contributed to the article.

Research Spotlights provide an overview and summary of research topics, providing context for a broader Earth, space and science audience, along with science journalists.

Key points of Kingfield’s research include:

  • Tower lightning can constitute a larger fraction of overall cloud-to-ground lightning measured in an area, with areas particularly near taller towers seeing a 500 percent increase in cloud-to-ground lightning over a small area. These anomalies have been underexplored in previous lightning climatologies.
  • Shorter cell phone towers appear to be more susceptible to lightning in winter storms because of different convective growth and charging mechanisms historically observed in winter storms.

For the full Research Spotlight, visit https://eos.org/research-spotlights/antenna-towers-attract-additional-lightning-strikes.

Tower-initiated lightning observed from a Wichita, Kan., neighborhood on 9 June 2007. (Photo by Kiel L. Ortega/ OU CIMMS)
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Weather Reports from Citizens Provide Research Input

Is it raining, snowing or hailing where you are? Tell us about it! Report the weather at your location any time on the mPING app to help NOAA researchers and forecasters, and join citizen scientists all around the world participating in Citizen Science Days through May 20.

Downloadable to your smartphone, mPING (Meteorological Phenomena Identification Near the Ground) is a free application that allows users to submit information about the weather to NOAA’s National Severe Storms Laboratory. Reports are immediately archived into a database at NSSL, and are displayed on a map accessible to anyone.

An mPING report. See more at https://mping.ou.edu/display/.%5B/caption%5D

To use the app, reporters select the type of weather that is occurring, and tap “submit.” The anonymous reports can be submitted as often as every 30 seconds.

The main goal of mPING is to provide more information to researchers and forecasters about the weather affecting the public. As a bonus, that very same public can see these reports! Weather radars cannot “see” at the ground, so mPING reports are used by the NOAA National Weather Service to fine-tune their forecasts.

Reports from mPING are also helping NOAA researchers in a variety of ways, including to develop new radar and forecasting technologies and techniques, said Kim Elmore, research scientist with The University of Oklahoma Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies working at the NOAA NSSL.

The first goal of mPING was verifying the type of precipitation detected by new radar technology. But, data from mPING proved useful for things not originally envisioned. While checking the accuracy of reports, Elmore and his team learned more about the scale and variability of freezing rain.

One mistake people could reasonably make is calling freezing rain just rain, since freezing rain is rain until it freezes onto something, Elmore explained. But with disagreeing observations, Elmore said they found only about 17 percent of the observations were rain; but about 60 percent of the observations that disagreed with freezing rain were really ice pellets.

“What that tells us is people can clearly discriminate between freezing rain and rain and freezing rain and ice pellets, since they all agree on what ice pellets are,” Elmore said. This shows that people know what they are seeing and mPING reports are mostly accurate.

Digging a little deeper, we know that freezing rain can exist in only a very narrow set of environmental conditions. If the air near the ground gets only a little colder, the raindrops will freeze before they reach the surface and be reported as ice pellets. If conditions warm up only a degree or two near the ground, the temperature is no longer below freezing and there can be no freezing rain.

Reports from mPING also helped the team learn about one of the newest numerical weather prediction models called the Rapid Update model, or RAP, which is used for short term weather prediction. Data from mPING showed the old version of RAP did not properly identify ice pellets. Once the model developers learned about this, they immediately made changes to better forecast ice pellets.

For one winter season, NOAA’s Earth System Research Lab and the

 operated the old version (but with the ice pellet fix) and new RAP models at the same time. This was a perfect perfect opportunity to see how much better the new RAP system handled ice pellets. To test this, mPING reports were compared to RAP model forecasts.

“It turns out, ice pellets are reported far more often than the model forecasts them,” he said. “We reported on the fact the new version of RAP helps some — it is a small but statistically significant improvement.”

The mPING app was developed through a partnership between NSSL, the University of Oklahoma and the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies and was included in Scientific American’s list of 8 Apps That Turn Citizens into Scientists. For more information on the application, or to watch a short video about it, visit http://mping.nssl.noaa.gov/.

Scientists will continue to look for new ways to use the mPING data in their research, Elmore said. So keep those reports coming!

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April 27 Reddit AMA: Tornado! Severe Weather Research & Prediction with NOAA

Spring has arrived and with it come efforts to study and learn to better predict severe weather like tornadoes. Join NOAA for a Reddit Ask Me Anything (AMA) on severe weather research and prediction on April 27, 2017.

Patrick Marsh, Adam Clark, Kim Klockow and Harold Brooks will take your questions during Thursday’s #Reddit AMA.

Severe weather touches every state in the U.S. Tornadoes, severe thunderstorms, hail, strong winds, and floods are real threats to our property and our lives. The NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed and VORTEX-SE (Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes EXperiment-Southeast) are designed to learn more about storms, helping to improve our prediction abilities and bring you better forecasts.

At the National Weather Center, which houses NOAA’s National Severe Storm Laboratory (NSSL) and Storm Prediction Center, as well as the University of Oklahoma Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS), our scientists work to better understand and predict severe weather to help everyone be prepared.

Reddit AMA Details

Who:

     Harold Brooks, NOAA NSSL research meteorologist

     Kim Klockow, UCAR scientist at CIMMS

     Adam Clark, NOAA NSSL research meteorologist

     Patrick Marsh, NOAA SPC warning coordination meteorologist

When: Thursday, April 27, 2017, from 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. CT

Where: Reddit Science AMA series

About the Scientists

Harold Brooks, a senior scientist in the Forecast Research and Development Division of NOAA NSSL, is originally from St. Louis, Missouri. He received a Ph.D. in atmospheric science in 1990 from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He joined NSSL in 1991 as a research meteorologist specializing in tornado climatology.

Adam Clark is a meteorologist with NOAA NSSL and a 2014 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE) winner. Originally from Des Moine, Iowa, Clark received his Ph.D. in meteorology and started working at NSSL in 2009. Clark is active in the NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed, which conducts experiments mainly late March and April.

Kim Klockow is a University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) project scientist at NOAA’s Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies at The University of Oklahoma who earned her Ph.D. in Human Geography. Working with the NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory, her research involves behavioral science focused on weather and climate risk, and explores the effects of risk visualization on judgment and perceptions of severe weather risk from a combination of place-based and cognitive perspectives.

Patrick Marsh is a warning coordination meteorologist at the NOAA National Weather Service’s Storm Prediction Center, which provides forecasts and watches for severe thunderstorms and tornadoes over the contiguous United States. He was born in Georgia but grew up in Arkansas and received his Ph.D. at the University of Oklahoma.

http://research.noaa.gov/News/NewsArchive/LatestNews/TabId/684/ArtMID/1768/ArticleID/12150/April-27-Reddit-AMA-Tornado-Talk-Severe-Weather-Research-Prediction-with-NOAA.aspx

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Collaboration improves UK and US radar techniques to improve forecasts

The national weather radar system used throughout the United States by NOAA National Weather Service  forecasters to “see” weather across the country is unique because it can be upgraded and modified with the newest capabilities, unlike other systems worldwide.

Because of this, and the need to work with experts in radar signal processing for improving the quality of radar data, international partners from the United Kingdom Met Office are collaborating with researchers from The University of Oklahoma Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies at the NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory to develop new techniques for U.K.-based radars.

The U.K. Met Office operated a radar system that did not allow changes and was considered a “commercial off-the-shelf solution.”

“Most weather services in the world purchase radar systems from companies and in those systems, the signal processor is typically a black box,” said Sebastian Torres, senior research scientist with OU CIMMS and NSSL. “The signal processor is a key component in all weather radar systems. Its job is to convert echoes received by the radar into weather images. It’s something most weather services don’t really have access to. They know how it works but they can’t change or improve anything.”

The U.K. Met Office decided to build its own signal processor for their radar systems. This allows a similar degree of flexibility to that of the NEXRAD radars, also known as the WSR-88D (weather surveillance radar-88 Doppler), operated in the United States. NOAA offered some of its tested techniques to the U.K. Met Office and in return received access to valuable data it could use for future research and operations.

Inside every NEXRAD radar is a rotating parabolic antenna. As the antenna rotates, it travels up and around while sending out pulses of electromagnetic energy. When radars send and receive these pulses, buildings and other structures may obstruct the radar’s view, contaminating the storm data.

To help keep unwanted objects from impacting storm data, Torres and fellow CIMMS Researcher David Warde developed two complementary signal-processing techniques for the WSR-88D. One technique, called CLEAN-AP, or Clutter Environment Analysis using Adaptive Processing filter, removes unwanted radar echoes from objects on the ground. The other one, called WET or Weather Environment Thresholding, intelligently decides when the CLEAN-AP filter should be applied. This prevents slow-moving storms from being confused with stationary objects.

NSSL and CIMMS researchers Sebastian Torres and David Warde (second and third person from the left) visited the UK Met Office in Exeter from February 22-26, 2016 to support implementation of CLEAN-AP on the UK weather radar network.

 

“The goal of CLEAN-AP and WET is to clean the data as much as possible so the forecasters have the best data available to make warnings and forecasts,” Torres said.

Through collaboration with the U.K. Met Office, who implemented CLEAN-AP and WET, the techniques were fine-tuned and improved. Both techniques are being transferred to the NOAA National Weather Service, and CLEAN-AP is licensed by OU to U.S. weather radar manufacturer Baron.

CLEAN-AP before and after

 

Another CIMMS Researcher, Igor Ivic, developed a third product transferred to the U.K. called the Radial-by-Radial Noise Estimator. RBRN  improves the quality of radar data by removing “noise,” the radar equivalent of radio static or television static. It was implemented on the U.S. NEXRAD network as part of ongoing research-to-operations efforts at NSSL and CIMMS.

“If you have noise and you can remove it from the radar returns, then you get just the signal, and that can be used to get better quality data,” Torres said.

Torres called the collaboration a “win-win” situation because the information exchange, as well as the new technologies and techniques that have been developed are good for both the U.S. and U.K.

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