The Emotional Toll of Tornadoes

Kim Klockow-McClain stands at memorial crosses
Kim Klockow-McClain stands at the memorial for tornado victims in Lee County, Alabama.

Researcher Kim Klockow-McClain absorbs the sights and sounds around her at Providence Baptist Church in Lee County, Alabama — almost one month since tornadoes devastated the community.

Klockow-McClain wants to tell people’s stories. They guide her effort to create a more complete picture of storms — not just how they happen meteorologically, but the impression they leave on people’s lives.

As a societal impacts researcher at the University of Oklahoma Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, her work supports NOAA’s National Severe Storms Laboratory to improve the tools used by NOAA National Weather Service forecasters.

She wants to learn how emergency management agencies, broadcast meteorologists and NWS forecasters work together in an attempt to impact the public, how they operate individually and how current practices ultimately affect severe weather safety messages the public receives.

“It will kind of be the end of the story for this tornado path that I’ve been following through Alabama and into Georgia.”

So on a dewy Tuesday morning, Klockow-McClain stands among 23 white crosses on the church’s south lawn. The crosses are a symbol of remembrance — of each person who died on March 3 after tornadoes tore through the area. The memorial is disheveled from a storm the night before but some items placed at the base of each cross remain — including a jar of peanut butter.

“You can just imagine it was their loved one coming up to their memorial saying, ‘I know you would want your peanut butter,’” she said, tears forming in her eyes.

She takes a moment, lightly hugs the manilla folders filled with her surveys and questions, wipes her eyes and walks toward the church.

A visceral need

mobile radar in field
VORTEX-SE is an effort to understand how environmental factors characteristic of the southeastern U.S. affect the formation, intensity, structure, and path of tornadoes in this region.

Klockow-McClain has a visceral need to visualize things. She says as a geographer she has to see things — maps, pathways, connections. Making those connections helps her build a map.

She visited the memorial first to build that piece of her research map and connections.

“I’m trying to understand the setting, the people and the place — who they are, who they were — the people who are gone,” Klockow-McClain said. “I couldn’t come here and not see the memorial. Ultimately, this is about the families who were left behind and the people who died.”

Her research is part of the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes EXperiment-Southeast, or VORTEX-SE, funded by NOAA.

VORTEX-SE is an effort to understand how environmental factors characteristic of the southeastern U.S. affect the formation, intensity, structure, and path of tornadoes in this region. The experiment will also determine the best methods for communicating the forecast uncertainty related to these events to the public, and evaluate public response.

For three days Klockow-McClain traveled the path of the March 3 tornado through Alabama and Georgia, meeting with those involved in alerting the public and locals who were personally impacted.

“It will kind of be the end of the story for this tornado path that I’ve been following through Alabama and into Georgia,” Klockow-McClain said.

Kim Klockow-McClain in emergency management office
“We as researchers can release the best severe weather technologies for our partners, but if people… can’t use them and don’t want them for reasons we don’t understand — that helps no one.”

Her research is focused on how messages coming from an Integrated Warning Team — emergency managers, broadcasters and forecasters — serve those living in manufactured and mobile homes, or whether further collective activities may need to be undertaken.

“When talking to all of the vested parties — emergency management agencies, broadcast meteorologists, forecasters and the public — you see places of great opportunity,” Klockow-McClain said. “We as researchers can release the best severe weather technologies for our partners, but if people don’t use, can’t use them and don’t want them for reasons we don’t understand — that helps no one.”

Bringing purpose

Klockow-McClain’s public response survey work first began in 2011 in Pleasant Grove, Alabama, about two hours from Providence Baptist Church.

Eight years later she revisited where her career began. As she navigates the curves of a rural road, she recounts one of the first times she interviewed someone who had witnessed a deadly storm. The person realized a tornado was near because they felt and heard debris falling on them while they were working on their vehicle.

Klockow-McClain spoke to that individual for nearly an hour in 2011. Now, sitting in the driver’s side of an SUV and staring at that person’s former home, she retells their story.

This person was one of 70 Klockow-McClain interviewed in less than one week. They heard meteorologists talk about an elevated weather risk on that day but didn’t think too much about it. That was until while working on their vehicle outside they described house insulation falling from the sky. Klcokow-McClain said the person ran inside their house, grabbed their significant other and animal and shoved them all in the bathtub. That move saved their lives. Describing the hours to come — losing neighbors, seeing houses gone around them — Klockow-McClain said she will never forget her hour-long conversation with that individual.

“I’m just creating a space for them to talk. I recognize that offers value to people. I use a method that involves care as a core principle. I feel like I’m doing something that matters.”

Inside Providence Baptist Church, Klockow-McClain is in a similar situation. She sits with an interviewee as they recount graphic details, highlighting every megapixel of that photographic day in March. All of the stories she’s heard don’t impact her personally. Klockow-McClain doesn’t let them. Instead, those stories bring her purpose.

“In the role as interviewer, you’re equal parts researcher and counselor. I’m just creating a space for them to talk,” Klockow-McClain said. “I recognize that offers value to people. I use a method that involves care as a core principle. I feel like I’m doing something that matters.”

She specifically chose to visit Alabama and Georgia nearly one month after the event because the crisis stage was ending and people were slowly attempting to recover a sense of normalcy.

Helping people feel heard

Klockow-McClain understands her research with devastating tornadoes can be emotionally taxing, but she never views it that way.

“I’m grateful I get to tell these stories,” she said. “As a meteorologist, you see these things happen and it can feel terrible to feel like you can’t do anything. So for me, to be able to sit there and feel like I’m helping them by helping them feel heard and their story matters by being a part of a bigger picture — that is helpful to me.”

Kim Klockow-McClain interviewing woman
“Research isn’t just about going out and collecting observations of… atmospheric factors. It’s about relating to people deeply enough that you really and truly can understand the context of what they’re telling you.”

She lets the person being interviewed steer the interview, no matter how graphic the story. Klockow-McClain said she wants to start in their shoes as people share what is most important to them. She listens to them verbalize the items that come to their minds as they help her understand their frame of mind and perspective.

“Research isn’t just about going out and collecting observations of wind, precipitation and atmospheric factors,” she said. “It’s about relating to people deeply enough that you really and truly can understand the context of what they’re telling you and fill this role of having some sympathy that’s meaningful to them for what they’ve experienced because they’ve gone through something very difficult. To come in and just dispassionately have a checklist or survey wouldn’t feel right to me.”

Generating a diagnosis

Klockow-McClain spent several hours speaking with volunteers at the church before following their suggestions to see the tornado damage in person.

She drove for less than 15 minutes before she saw signs of the damage and suddenly she was in the thick of it. Power lines were still down in areas. Piles of debris sat by the road as crews worked to clear side roads. Those living nearby watched for looters, which was a consistent issue after the storms.

Klockow-McClain hopes her research will lead to a better understanding of the needs of specific communities in the southeast to reduce tornado deaths in that area of the United States. Her research is aimed at generating a diagnosis that could ultimately lead to an effective treatment. A part of that is telling people’s stories.end mark

Kim Klockow-McClain in car viewing tornado damage

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NOAA researcher studies how communicating tornado information impacts lives

When a tornado threatens a community, NOAA National Weather Service forecasters issue a tornado warning. Local emergency management agencies sound emergency tornado sirens or send out phone alerts. Broadcast meteorologists tell everyone to take shelter. But how does all of this help the public and how does the public respond?

Kim Klockow-McClain encounters  damage in the area of Alabama that experienced deadly tornadoes in early March. She recently visited 10 public safety officials and communicators who were affected by the March tornado in Alabama and Georgia. Her three-day trip is part of her research through the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes EXperiment-Southeast, or VORTEX-SE.
Kim Klockow-McClain encounters damage in the area of Alabama that experienced deadly tornadoes in early March. She recently visited 10 public safety officials and communicators who were affected by the March tornado in Alabama and Georgia. Her three-day trip is part of her research through the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes EXperiment-Southeast, or VORTEX-SE.

This scenario played out in southeast Alabama about a month ago, when a devastating tornado killed 23 people and injured numerous others, before ending its path in Georgia. The storm system was well forecast — as NOAA’s Storm Prediction Center predicted an elevated risk of severe storms days in advance and local NWS forecasters provided timely warnings.

Kim Klockow-McClain wants to know why that storm system — which included winds that reached 170 mph and rated 4, with 5 being the worst, on the Enhanced Fujita tornado-rating scale— was so deadly. She is a societal impacts researcher at the University of Oklahoma Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies. Her work supports NOAA’s National Severe Storms Laboratory to improve tools used by NOAA National Weather Service forecasters.

For the full story, visit NOAA Research’s website.

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Information analysis: social science adds needed piece to the weather puzzle

Research Scientist Jack Friedman with University of Oklahoma Center for Applied Social Research observes and works in the National Weather Forecast Office in Huntsville, Alabama. Friedman is one of the several social science researchers involved in the VORTEX-Southeast project spring 2017 experiment. (NOAA NSSL)

Increasing our knowledge of severe storms and improving the tools used to forecast them has been the singular mission of the NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory since it was formed more than 50 years ago — until recently. Now NSSL researchers are expanding their focus to include people — how they receive, understand and interact with weather information.

A new report released this month by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine concludes that realizing the greatest return on investment from significant improvements in weather information will require a better understanding of how individuals, households and communities respond to weather forecasts, watches and warnings.

NSSL is already doing many of the recommendations mentioned in the report, said Kim Klockow, a research associate working at NSSL with the University of Oklahoma Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies. Dozens of researchers are integrating disciplines such as communication, psychology and education into the traditional meteorological research at NSSL.

“Meteorologists care about saving lives and property, and ultimately those goals depend on the actions people choose to take,” Klockow said. “Information is just one piece of the puzzle. Providing the public with information about possible dangers doesn’t stop the threats from having an impact, and it alone doesn’t motivate people to take action.

“In our research at NSSL, we have to account for the ways people understand what we’re saying, the things they’re able to do, and the things that motivate them.”

Klockow leads a new societal impacts group at NSSL created to ensure new technologies are useful and usable by the public, emergency managers and public broadcasters. Several recent projects are highlighted below.

Research in the Hazardous Weather Testbed

Each year, NSSL invites broadcast meteorologists, emergency managers and National Weather Service forecasters to the NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed in Norman, Oklahoma, to test new technology developed at NSSL and within NOAA.

“Our research needs to engage those who will be using it,” Klockow said. “We have them test what our researchers have developed to see if they can use it, or will use it.”

Next year, the researchers plan to invite larger private sector companies to participate in testbed experiments. These forecasters may provide new insights, Klockow said.

The NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed during the Spring 2017 experiment about the Geostationary Lighting Mapper. (Photo by James Murnan/ NOAA NSSL)

People’s responses to warnings
Recently, NSSL teamed up with OU’s Center for Risk and Crisis Management to analyze how the public receives and acts on weather warnings. This project, part of the broader Probability of What project, is to study the effectiveness of the current warning infrastructure. This information will help NSSL measure the impacts new technologies might have on the public.

“We are looking at providing more information between a watch and warning to fill the information gap and provide up to an hour of advanced notice for all kinds of severe weather,” Klockow said. “We need to know if it will be beneficial to people — if they will use that information — or if giving a slew of probabilities may be more difficult to understand.”

The POW research team is conducting nationwide surveys and small experiments to measure the public’s understanding of weather information.

Social science integral part of tornado study
How emergency managers and forecasters handle information during hazardous weather events is an important part of VORTEX-Southeast, a research program studying storms and tornadoes in the southeastern United States.

“VORTEX-SE is the first time social science has been integrated into a weather field campaign,” Klockow said. “When the physical science researchers deploy to the field, so do the social science researchers.”

Klockow said social scientists have embedded with local emergency managers and National Weather Service forecasters, studying how they receive information, process that information, and relay it to the public.

“We see if there are any information gaps, points of confusion, or breaks in the communication channels and how the process may be improved,” Klockow said.

Studying the latest technology
Part of informing the public about weather affecting them includes staying apprised of the latest and greatest technology. Klockow is researching the ATSC 3.0, a new television broadcast system offering more options, including advanced emergency alerts.

“It will fundamentally change the way TV works, so someone can point to the TV with their remote and get more detailed or local information during severe weather coverage,” Klockow said. “The viewer could pull up radar, probability plumes defined by NSSL research or timelines. This offers an amazing opportunity to get more information to the user. We have to make sure we are aware of this new technology and get it in sync with our research designs.”

Whether studying the structure of a thunderstorm, developing a new radar algorithm, improving a weather forecasting model, or analyzing the ways people receive weather information — every project at NSSL has at its heart the goal of minimizing the impacts of hazardous weather on society.

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Researchers Begin Second Year of Tornado Study in Southeastern United States

The second field observing campaign for the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes EXperiment-Southeast (VORTEX-SE) research program, coordinated by the National Severe Storms Laboratory, began March 8 and continues through May 8. A media day will be held at 10 a.m. CDT March 21 at the Signature Flight Support – Huntsville International Airport. Researchers from NSSL, Air Resources Laboratory, University of Alabama – Huntsville and other participants will discuss their operational plans and show some of the vehicles and instruments they are using, including the NOAA P-3 aircraft, mobile radars and research drones.

VORTEX-SE is a research program designed to understand how environmental factors characteristic of the southeastern United States affect the formation, intensity, structure and path of tornadoes in this region. VORTEX-SE will also determine the best methods for communicating forecast uncertainty to the public and evaluate public response related to these events.

This year’s field project will gather data to address two main research topics:

1. How cold air flowing out of a storm influences the development of tornadoes.

2. The role of terrain in tornado formation and how terrain influences wind, temperature and humidity in storm environments.

The ultimate purpose of this research is better forecasts and warnings for the public.
Erik Rasmussen, VORTEX-SE project manager, speaks during media day in 2016, kicking off the spring 2016 field research campaign. Media day for VORTEX-SE’s 2017 spring field research campaign is Tuesday, March 21.
Credit NOAA/Keli Pirtle.
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NOAA Research grants support continued tornado research in the Southeast

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A study of tornadoes in the southeastern United States begins its second year this month as NOAA Research announces awards of $2.5 million in grants presented to partner institutions.

Scientists from more than 20 organizations are part of VORTEX-Southeast, a program to understand how environmental factors characteristic of the southeastern United States affect the formation, intensity, structure and path of tornadoes in this region. VORTEX-SE researchers will also determine the best methods for communicating forecast uncertainty related to these events to the public, and evaluate public response.

NOAA is supporting research in three main areas:  improving forecast models, addressing risk awareness and response, and observing and modeling tornadic storms and their environments. A list of all the grants is available here: http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/projects/vortexse/supported-2017/

4362photo-2017vortexgrants-texas-tech-researcher-vanna-chmielewski-prepares-to-launch-a-weather-balloon-near-storms-in-northern-alabama-credit-keli-pirtle-noaaThis past spring, researchers spent about seven days during a two-month period gathering data on storms around Huntsville, Alabama,  using an armada of instruments. They targeted a range of weather situations from multiple rapidly evolving supercell thunderstorms to days when anticipated storms failed to develop. A similar field experiment is planned for spring 2017.

With a year’s worth of data in hand, researchers are gaining insights into how to study storms in the southeast, which has a very different terrain from the Great Plains, said Erik Rasmussen, VORTEX-SE project manager and research scientist for the University of Oklahoma’s Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies working at the NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory.

4361photo-2017vortexgrants-erik-rasmussen-vortex-se-project-manager-speaks-during-media-day-kicking-off-the-spring-2016-field-research-campaign-credit-keli-pirtle-noaa1“We now have a tremendous amount of information about what we can and can’tobserve in the southeastern environment, and an understanding of how to move forward from here. We know what to expect and how to observe it, ” Rasmussen said. “We’ve learned a lot in the social science related studies as well — where we should focus our attention to answer the critical questions of how weather information is used and how people respond.”

VORTEX-SE activities are supported by special Congressional allocations of more than $10 million to NOAA made in 2015 and 2016.

Contact: Keli Pirtle, National Severe Storms Laboratory, (405) 325-6933, keli.pirtle@noaa.gov

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NOAA, University of Alabama-Huntsville and Partners Kick Off Tornado Study

Tornadoes will be the target as researchers spend the next two months in northern Alabama collecting data as part of the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes EXperiment-Southeast, a research project coordinated by NOAA’s National Severe Storms Laboratory. The goal is to understand how environmental factors in the southeastern United States affect the formation, intensity, structure, and path of tornadoes, as well as determine the best methods for communicating forecast uncertainty to the public.

SardisMS-122315-JasonCooley-2
Tornado in Sardis, MS, December 23, 2015. Credit: Jason Cooley.

The VORTEX-SE field study, set to run March 1 through April 30, will involve 40 physical and social science researchers from 20 research entities, many located in the southeast. They will deploy approximately 13 vehicles, three mobile radars and one fixed radar from  their operations base at the University  of  Alabama-Huntsville. During previous VORTEX field campaigns, researchers roamed the Great Plains, taking the instruments to the storms. This time, some of the instruments are stationary, and the domain is much smaller. As a result, the researchers expect to operate during four to five periods of several days each as the storms come to them.

The number of killer tornadoes in the southeastern U.S. is disproportionately large when compared to the overall number of tornadoes throughout the country. Researchers believe this is caused by a series of physical and sociological factors, including tornadoes at night, in rugged terrain, as well as tornadoes occurring before the perceived peak of “tornado season,” during a time of year when storms typically move quickly. Other variables include the lack of visibility, inadequate shelter, and larger population density that increases the vulnerability of residents in this area.

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Damage seen on January 23, 2012 following an EF3 tornado in Center Point, AL. Credit: NWS Birmingham

“In many ways, VORTEX-SE represents a new approach to tornado research in general,” said Erik Rasmussen, VORTEX-SE project manager and Research Scientist for the University of Oklahoma’s Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies working at the NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory. “This is the first field observing campaign in the southeast U.S. to begin to understand how the atmosphere can become locally favorable for tornadoes and how these changes can be better anticipated in the tornado forecast process.”

VORTEX-SE activities are being supported by a special Congressional allocation of more than $5 million to NOAA made in 2015. A similar allocation made this year will support additional activities in the spring of 2017.
Researchers from the following organizations are participating in VORTEX-SE:

  • NOAA Air Resources Laboratory
  • NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory
  • NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service
  • NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory
  • NOAA National Weather Service
  • University of Oklahoma Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies
  • Colorado State University
  • Mississippi State University
  • NASA
  • National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • National Science Foundation
  • North Carolina State University
  • Purdue University
  • Texas Tech University
  • University of Alabama – Birmingham
  • University of Alabama – Huntsville
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
  • University of Louisiana at Monroe
  • University of Maryland
  • University of Massachusetts
  • University of North Carolina at Asheville
  • University of Oklahoma
  • University of Tennessee
Decatur Daily Photo by Gary Cosby Jr. A massive tornado swept across Limestone County Wednesday afternoon following the same track as a killer tornado in the 1974 outbreak. The storm is located over the TVA power lines and over Ingram Rd. west of Highway 31 in Tanner. The time of the image is 4:21:13 PM April 27, 2011. The picture was shot from Highway 31 in front of Swan Creek Community (trailer court) looking just a couple of degrees south of due west.
A massive tornado in Limestone County, AL, April 27, 2011. Credit: David Cosby Jr., Decatur Daily

Contact
Keli Pirtle, keli.pirtle@noaa.gov, (405) 203-4839

More information
http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/projects/vortexse

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CLAMPS at VORTEX-SE

During VORTEX-SE, researchers will have a new tool to assist them in the field. The Collaborative Lower Atmospheric Mobile Profiling System (CLAMPS) is a mobile trailer outfitted with commercially available remote sensing instruments. These instruments provide profiles of temperature, humidity and winds in the atmospheric boundary layer at high temporal resolution (~5 min). In this lower part of the atmosphere, storms can evolve very quickly with time, so it is vital to obtain precise measurements of temperature, humidity, and winds to capture its changes. Deploying the CLAMPS system in VORTEX-SE will enhance our understanding of how the BL is evolving and provide greater insight into storm development.

CLAMPSCLAMPS trailer

CLAMPS is made up of three main components. First, the Doppler Lidar is an active remote sensor that transmits pulses of laser energy into the atmosphere to detect atmospheric motion. By scanning the lidar’s telescope, profiles of horizontal and vertical winds can be derived, and by analyzing the data over time, researchers are able to get a measurement turbulence in the atmosphere. The second instrument is a multi-channel Microwave Radiometer. This tool measures downwelling radiation emitted by the atmosphere, from which researchers can deduce low vertical resolution profiles of temperature and water vapor. This helps to accurately determine the amount of liquid water in the overhead cloud. The third instrument is the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), which also measures downwelling radiation emitted by the atmosphere, but in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. From these data, researchers are able to retrieve higher vertical resolution profiles of temperature and water vapor in the boundary layer, as well as the amount of both ice and liquid cloud water amounts. The AERI also provides information on the amounts of various trace gases in the atmosphere including CO2, N20, CH4, and CO.

doppler-lidar-clamps

Doppler lidar

m-cmr-clamps

Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer

aeri-clampsAtmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

CLAMPS is a joint effort between NOAA’s National Severe Storms Laboratory and the University of Oklahoma, funded by the National Science Foundation’s Major Research Initiative program. The trailer arrives in Huntsville, Alabama, on February 29 and will be set up to run automatically through the duration of the VORTEX-SE field campaign. VORTEX-SE runs from March 1 until April 30.

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VORTEX-SE Field Campaign

Smith_Jasper_Clarke_Counties_tornado_2011-04-27

Tornadoes will be the target as researchers set out from Huntsville, Alabama, to collect data as part of VORTEX-Southeast, a research project coordinated by NOAA’s National Severe Storms Laboratory. The goal is to understand how environmental factors in the southeastern United States affect the formation, intensity, structure, and path of tornadoes, as well as determine the best methods for communicating forecast uncertainty to the public..

The VORTEX-SE field study, set to run March 1 through April 30, will involve 40 physical and social science researchers from 20 research entities, many based in the southeast. They will deploy and operate approximately 13 vehicles, three mobile radars and one fixed radar.

VORTEX-SE is intended to help improve the quality of warnings from NOAA’s National Weather Service and enhance the Forecasting a Continuum of Environmental Threats (FACETS) research project. This will have substantial impact on the NOAA mission of protecting life and property.

A VORTEX-SE Media Day will be held at 10 a.m. Monday, February 29, at the Severe Weather Institute and Radar & Lightning Laboratories (SWIRLL) building on the campus of the University of Alabama – Huntsville. Those in attendance will have the opportunity to tour research vehicles and speak with participating scientists.

The Norman NOAA Communications Team has launched a VORTEX-SE website to provide up-to-date information for the media and general public: http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/projects/vortexse/.

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VORTEX-SE Workshop to be Held in November

Smith_Jasper_Clarke_Counties_tornado_2011-04-27The first invitation-only VORTEX-SE Workshop will be held in Huntsville, Alabama, November 9-10, 2015.

The Verification of Rotation in Tornadoes EXperiment-Southeast project focuses on tornadic storms and the special concerns associated with these storms in the southeastern United States. Meteorological issues in this region include nighttime and cool season tornadoes, rapid boundary layer evolution, the role of terrain in the variability of environments conducive to tornadoes, and Quasi-Linear Convective System tornadoes. Social science concerns relate to how people in the southeast receive and respond to tornado forecasts and warnings, as well as how prior tornado event and warning histories influence their responses.

The November workshop will establish themes for VORTEX-SE research that will span over the next several years. These themes will address the social science, meteorological, and resulting operational concerns that arise from severe weather events in the southeast. At the conclusion of the workshop, a roadmap of research projects will be outlined, along with information about sequencing, scope, duration, and cost. This information will be available for use by various federal agencies to guide funding decisions. The first field campaign of VORTEX-SE will be conducted in the spring of 2016.

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