Significant Paper: Aircraft Observations of Dry Air, the ITCZ, Convective Cloud Systems, and Cold Pools in MJO During DYNAMO

Jorgensen-sig-paper

Aircraft Observations of Dry Air, the ITCZ, Convective Cloud Systems, and Cold Pools in MJO During DYNAMO
Authors: Chen, S., B. W. Kerns, N. Guy, D. P. Jorgensen, J. Delanoe, N. Viltard, C. Zappa, F. Judt, C. Y. Lee, A. Savarin, E. Fontaine
Journal: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Publication Date: In Print 3/2016

Significance:
These airborne measurements from the NOAA P-3 aircraft provide valuable new insights into the distinct characteristics of convection, cold pools, water vapor, and air–sea fluxes from the suppressed to active phases of Maddan/Jullian Oscillation (MJO) in the Indian Ocean.

Important Conclusions:

• Dry air intrusions from the subtropics may suppress convection in the equatorial Indian Ocean, which is favorable for the onset of the convection during MJO initiation.

• Distinct characteristics were found in the convective structure and microphysical properties of Mesoscale weather systems during the suppressed, transition/ onset, and active phases of the MJO.

• Convective cold pools are deeper and stronger in convective systems surrounded by the low–midlevel dry air in the suppressed phase, which prolong the atmosphere boundary layer recovery time.

• The atmospheric boundary layer depth and upper ocean temperature are higher during the suppressed phase than during the active phase, and the air–sea temperature difference and sensible fluxes are larger during the suppressed phase of the MJO.

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Significant Paper: Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) Quantitative Precipitation Estimation: Initial Operating Capabilities

Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) Quantitative Precipitation Estimation: Initial Operating Capabilities
Authors: Jian Zhang and Kenneth Howard, Carrie Langston, Brian Kaney, Youcun Qi, Lin Tang, Heather Grams, Yadong Wang, Stephen Cocks, Steven Martinaitis, Ami Arthur, Karen Cooper, and Jeff Brogden, David Kitzmiller
Journal: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Publication Date: In Print 5/2016

Significance:
This paper provides a comprehensive description of the initial operating capabilities of the MRMS QPE system and would be beneficial to the users of MRMS products.  This is also a follow-up to a previous BAMS paper by Zhang et al. 2011 on the National Mosaic and Multi-sensor QPE system (in the Oct. 2011 issue of BAMS)

Important Conclusions:
Polarimetric upgrade of the NEXRAD network significantly improved the quality of the operational weather and precipitation products.  Further, the real-time dissemination of the radar base level data across the internet facilitated effective integration and assimilation of multi-sensor atmospheric observations. As a result, the resolution and accuracy of precipitation products are improved and new hydrometeorological applications are developed.

MRMS_figure2

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Significant Paper: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: The First 20 Years – Introduction

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The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: The First 20 Years – Introduction
Authors: D. D. Turner, R. G. Ellingson
Journal: Meteorological Monographs
Publication Date: In Print 4/2016

Important Conclusions:
The ARM program is the DOE’s primary observationally-based climate research program.  The ARM program set a new paradigm by operating a large number of instruments, including many that were previously considered laboratory-only instruments, operationally in different climatic regimes around the world. The program developed several new instruments, including the first autonomous 8-mm cloud radar and water vapor Raman lidar. ARM data have been been used for a large number of different scientific studies including: development of cloud overlap statistics, improving detailed radiative transfer models and their parameterization in global climate and numerical weather prediction models, a better understanding of cloud phase microphysical processes, aerosol-cloud interactions, and more.

Significance:
This paper is the introduction to the AMS Meteorological Monograph entitled “The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program: The First 20 Years.” This monograph is a history of the origins of the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, its programmatic maturation, and its primary scientific accomplishments. It consists of 4 general overview chapters, 8 chapters on the development of the program’s infrastructure, and 18 chapters that cover the various scientific accomplishments of the program. The chapters were authored by selected participants from the ARM program.

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Significant Paper: Using Citizen Science Reports to Evaluate Estimates of Surface Precipitation Type

mPING overlaid on MRMS

Using Citizen Science Reports to Evaluate Estimates of Surface Precipitation Type
Authors: Sheng Chen, Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, Qing Cao, Nicholas Carr, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Jian Zhang, Zac Flamig
Journal: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Publication Date: In Print 2/2016

Important Conclusions: Consistency in results from city to city give an indication that the citizen science reports of rain and snow from the meteorological Phenomena Identification Near the Ground app (mPING) provide useful information about the quality of the MRMS precipitation type algorithm. The MRMS surface precipitation type algorithm has a slight propensity to produce too much rain where there is snow; this suggests some modifications are needed to the temperature thresholds and motivates probabilistic approaches.

Significance: This is the first paper to comprehensively evaluate the MRMS rain-snow product using mPING crowd-sourced observations.

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Significant Paper: Multifunction Phased Array Radar for Aircraft and Weather Surveillance

mparMultifunction Phased Array Radar for Aircraft and Weather Surveillance
Authors: Stailey, J., K. D. Hondl
Journal: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication Date: In Print 3/2016

Important Conclusions: This paper provides an overview of Multifunction Phased Array Radar (MPAR) program – its origins, development, and area of focus. The MPAR initiative has made significant progress toward moving phased array radar technology into operational use, advanced dual polarization technology, and made strides toward driving down the cost of active electronically steered array (AESA) technology. The effort has made important contributions to the eventual application of AESA radar to meet new and different needs.

Significance: Multifunction Phased Array Radar (MPAR) is a multiagency initiative to investigate the feasibility of replacing aircraft surveillance and weather radar fleets in the United States with a network of phased array radars based on a single, scalable networked array architecture.

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Significant Paper: Evaluation of a Probabilistic Forecasting Methodology for Severe Convective Weather in the 2014 Hazardous Weather Testbed

PHI Evaluation of a Probabilistic Forecasting Methodology for Severe Convective Weather in the 2014 Hazardous Weather Testbed
Authors: Chris Karstens, Greg Stumpf, Chen Ling, Lesheng Hua, Darrel Kingfield, Travis Smith, James Correia Jr., Kristin Calhoun, Kiel Ortega, Chris Melick, Lans Rothfusz

Journal: Weather and Forecasting
Publication Date: Online 12/2015

Important Conclusions:
This paper establishes a methodology for creating Probabilistic Hazard Information and describes an evaluation of this methodology conducted with researchers and forecasters in the NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed. Forecasters were able to quickly adapt to the new tools and concepts and ultimately produced probabilistic hazard information in a timely manner. The probabilistic forecasts from two severe hail events tested in a control–test experiment were more skillful than storm-based warnings and were found to have reliability in the low-probability spectrum. False alarm area decreased while the traditional verification metrics degraded with increasing probability thresholds. The latter finding is attributable to a limitation in applying the current verification methodology to probabilistic forecasts. Relaxation of on-the-fence decisions exposed a need to provide information for hazard areas below the decision-point thresholds of current warnings. Automated guidance information was helpful in combating potential workload issues, and forecasters raised a need for improved guidance and training to inform consistent and reliable forecasts.

The methodology by which the findings were derived in this study was of equal importance to the findings themselves. NOAA’s National Severe Storms Laboratory is demonstrating to the NWS that NSSL is cautious, thorough, and scientific in development of the FACETs tools.

Significance:
This paper describes a proposed methodology for issuing Probabilistic Hazard Information for severe convective weather, as opposed to the warnings issued by the National Weather Service today. Additionally, the findings from the Hazardous Weather Testbed experiments are summarized, along with descriptions of how this process has informed ongoing and future development.

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Significant Paper: Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) Quantitative Precipitation Estimation: Initial Operating Capabilities

MRMS

Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) Quantitative Precipitation Estimation: Initial Operating Capabilities.                                                                                         Authors: Zhang, J., Howard, K., Langston, C., Kaney, B., Qi, Y., Tang, L., Grams, H., Wang, Y., Cocks, S., Martinaitis, S., Arthur, A., Cooper, K., Brogden, J., Kitzmiller, D.

Journal: Bulletin of the AMS.                                                                                          Publication Date: Online 8/4/15

Important Conclusions:

The Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system, operationally implemented at NOAA National Center for Environmental Prediction, integrates radar, surface observations, satellite data, and numerical analysis and prediction and generates an automated, seamless national products suite of severe weather and quantitative precipitation estimate (QPE) products at very high spatial (1 km) and temporal (2 min update cycle) resolution. The MRMS products are used in operations and research for model assimilation, flash flood monitoring and prediction, and hazardous weather warnings.  The MRMS products are provided to users from government agencies, universities, research institutions, and the private sector and have been utilized in numerous meteorological, aviation, and hydrological applications.

Significance:

This paper provides a comprehensive description of the operating capabilities and improvements of the MRMS system QPE product suite and would be beneficial to the users of MRMS QPE products. This is also a follow-up to a previous BAMS paper by Zhang et al. 2011 on the National Mosaic and Multi-sensor QPE system (in the Oct. 2011 issues of BAMS).

 

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