Why conduct research with Emergency Managers?
Emergency managers play a critical role in distributing NOAA National Weather Service warnings to people using a variety of methods, such as activating sirens; notifying schools, hospitals and other critical services; or, activating an emergency alert system. Thus, emergency managers play an integral role in testing, evaluation, and feedback during the development of probabilistic hazard information (PHI) within the NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed. They provide feedback on their interpretation of experimental probabilistic forecasts generated in the HWT from the PHI Experiment and the Experimental Forecast Program. This feedback is used in conjunction with feedback from forecasters and broadcast meteorologists to refine how the uncertainty information is generated and disseminated. In addition, NSSL collaborators conduct ethnographic research with emergency managers during live events. This helps researchers understand the complex decision-making processes of emergency managers during severe weather outside controlled testbed environments.
Meet the team!
Cassandra Shivers-Williams, Researcher, Blogger Extraordinaire
Cassandra is a post-doctoral researcher within the Societal Impacts Group at the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS) at the University of Oklahoma and the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL). Her research involves psychological and behavioral science focused on the publics’ weather risk and response. Specifically, her work examines the effects of uncertainty presentation format, and individual differences in the reception and understanding of risk information on people’s willingness to take self-protective action. Before joining CIMMS/NSSL, Cassandra was a graduate student in the Psychology Department at Howard University in Washington, DC where she completed her PhD in Social Psychology. She was also a Graduate Research Fellow at the NOAA Cooperative Science Center for Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology (NCAS-M). Cassandra completed her BS in Psychology at Southern University and A&M College in Baton Rouge, LA.
Kim Klockow-McClain, Lead Researcher, Societal Impacts Team Lead
Kim is a research scientist and Societal Applications Coordinator with the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS) at the University of Oklahoma and the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL). Her research involves behavioral science focused on weather and climate risk, and specifically explores the effects of risk visualization on judgment, and perceptions of severe weather risk from place-based and cognitive perspectives. Before joining CIMMS/NSSL, Kim was a UCAR Postdoctoral Researcher and Policy Advisor at the NOAA OAR Office of Weather and Air Quality. Kim completed her undergraduate education at Purdue University and graduate education at the University of Oklahoma.
Kodi Berry, Researcher, HWT Executive Officer, EM Experiment Logistics Master
Kodi is a research scientist and Sea Grant Liaison with the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS) at the University of Oklahoma and the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL). Her primary area of research includes how broadcast meteorologists use and communicate probabilistic information in the Hazardous Weather Testbed. Kodi also manages and coordinates across all experiments that take place in NOAA’s Hazardous Weather Testbed. Before joining CIMMS/NSSL, she was the project manager on a project to modernize Croatia’s hydrometeorological service. Kodi completed her undergraduate education at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and graduate education at the University of Oklahoma.
Alan Gerard, Warning Research and Development Division Chief, Warning Coordinator for EM Experiment
Alan is the chief of the Warning Research and Development Division (WRDD) of the National Severe Storms Lab (NSSL). He has been in this position since 2015. As it relates to the EM Experiment, Alan serves as the Warning Coordinator. In this role, he is the realtime liaison between the Emergency Managers and the meteorologists performing severe weather warning operations. He passes along questions, severe weather reports, etc. in both directions. Prior to becoming the WRDD Chief, he had a 25 year career in the National Weather Service as an operational meteorologist and supervisor of the NWS office in Jackson, MS. Alan completed his undergraduate degree in meteorology at St. Louis University, and his MS in emergency and disaster management at Millersville University.
Adrian Campbell, Co-Chief Engineer
Adrian is a research scientist with the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS) at the University of Oklahoma and the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL). He serves as the Co-Chief Engineer for the EM experiment. In this role, he actively develops the Probabilistic Hazard Information (PHI) Prototype Tool and supports data flow and display in PHI Prototype Experiments. The focus of his research is on the perception and interpretation of image content with application to storm segmentation and tracking algorithms. An additional, related research interest is virtual reality environments that are capable of visualizing complex datasets and their potential contributions to data exploration and analysis. Adrian completed his BS in Computer Engineering, MS in Electrical and Computer Engineering, and PhD in Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Oklahoma.
Tiffany Meyer, Co-Chief Engineer
Tiffany is a research associate with the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS) at the University of Oklahoma and the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL). She facilitates and manages AWIPS-2 software builds and data-flow in all experiments that occur within the Experimental Warning Program. Her most recent research has focused on forecasting the probability that cloud-to-ground lightning will occur within the next hour, which has been tested by National Weather Service forecasters, emergency managers, and broadcasters within the Probabilistic Hazard Information (PHI) Prototype Experiment. Tiffany completed her BS in Meteorology at the University of Oklahoma and her MS in Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University.
Kenzie Krocak, Researcher, Product Developer
Kenzie is currently a PhD student at the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS) at the University of Oklahoma and the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL). Kenzie has spent the last three years serving as a researcher in the Hazardous Weather Testbed. Specifically, she has been testing different forecasting products among forecasters and emergency managers. One product she developed for testing with Emergency Managers is the Potential for Severe Timing (PST) Tool, which forecasts severe weather on different temporal and spatial scales. Kenzie’s research interests include understanding how public officials and residents interact with hazardous weather information. Kenzie also works with national survey data to examine the extent to which residents receive, comprehend, and respond to severe weather products appropriately. She completed her Bachelors degree at Iowa State University and her Masters degree at the University of Oklahoma.