Jidong Gao


Data Assimilation & Modeling Team (DAMT)

Job Title:Research Meteorologist


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Phone:(405) 325-6128


Google Scholar

I am currently a research meteorologist for National Severe Storm Laboratory (NSSL)/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). I am also affiliated with University of Oklahoma (OU) as Research Fellow for the Cooperative Institute for Severe and High-Impact Weather Research and Operations (CIWRO), and as adjunct faculty member for the School of Meteorology (SoM). Before joining NSSL in 2010, I was an employee for OU Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms (CAPS) for 13 years. I was the main developer of a hybrid ensemble-variational radar data assimilation system (Gao et al, 1999, 2004, 2013, 2016; Gao and Stensrud, 2012, 2014) which has interface with both open-source community Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS), and Weather Research & Forecasting model (WRF).

Unlike many other meteorologists here who love to chase storms or even tornadoes, I would rather stay indoors and play with complex formulae and computers. I consider myself as a part-time scientist who conducts scientific research and part-time software engineer who develops data assimilation programs for numerical weather prediction models. You are welcome to view my NSSL website which mainly includes my biographical sketch, full CV, list of formal publications, and Google Scholar page.

Degree (Ph.D, M.S, B.A, etc.) Major Subject University or College Name Year (YYYY) (optional)
Ph.D. Meteorology Lanzhou University 1994
M.S. Meteorology Lanzhou University 1991
B.S Meteorology Lanzhou University 1988
Research Interests
  • Radar and satellite data assimilation
  • Convective scale severe weather forecast
  • Radar data quality control and Analysis
Professional Activities
  • Editor, Monthly Weather Review, American Meteorological Society
  • CIWRO Fellow, University of Oklahoma
  • Affiliate professor, School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma
Honors & Awards
Award Name Year
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences (AAS) Editor's Award 2016
Selected Publications

Zhao, J.J. GaoT. A. JonesJ. Hu2022Impact of Assimilating High-Resolution Atmospheric Motion Vectors on Convective Scale Short-Term Forecasts: 3. Experiments With Radar Reflectivity and Radial VelocityJournal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems1412, doi:doi.org/10.1029/2022MS003246.

Pan, S.J. Gao2022A Method for Assimilating Pseudo Dewpoint Temperature as a Function of GLM Flash Extent Density in GSI-Based EnKF Data Assimilation System—A Proof of Concept StudyEarth and Space Science912, doi:10.1029/2022EA002378.

Chen, H.J. GaoY. WangY. ChenT. SunJ. CarlinY. Zheng2021Radar reflectivity data assimilation method based on background-dependent hydrometeor retrieval: The comparison with direct assimilation in real casesQuarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society1472409–2428, doi:10.1002/qj.4031.

Du, M.J. GaoG. ZhangY. WangP. L. HeinselmanC. Cui2021Assimilation of Polarimetric Radar Data in Simulation of a Supercell Storm with a Variational Approach and the WRF ModelRemote Sensing133060, doi:10.3390/rs13163060.

Hu, J.J. GaoY. WangS. PanA. O. FierroP. S. SkinnerK. KnopfeierE. R. MansellP. L. Heinselman2021Evaluation of an experimental Warn-on-Forecast 3DVAR analysis and forecast system on quasi-real-time short-term forecasts of high-impact weather eventsQuarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society1477414063–4082, doi:10.1002/qj.4168.

Pan, S.J. GaoT. A. JonesY. WangX. WangJ. Li2021The Impact of Assimilating Satellite-Derived Layered Precipitable Water, Cloud Water Path, and Radar Data on Short-Range Thunderstorm ForecastsMonthly Weather Review1491359–1380, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-20-0040.1.

Zhang, G.J. GaoM. Du2021Parameterized Forward Operators for Simulation and Assimilation of Polarimetric Radar Data with Numerical Weather PredictionsAdvances in Atmospheric Sciences385737–754, doi:10.1007/s00376-021-0289-6.

Zhao, J.J. GaoT. A. JonesJ. Hu2021Impact of Assimilating High-Resolution Atmospheric Motion Vectors on Convective Scale Short-Term Forecasts: 1. Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE)Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems1310, doi:10.1029/2021MS002484.

Zhao, J.J. GaoT. J. JonesJ. Hu2021Impact of Assimilating High-Resolution Atmospheric Motion Vectors on Convective Scale Short-Term Forecasts: 2. Assimilation Experiments of GOES-16 Satellite Derived WindsJournal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems1310, doi:10.1029/2021MS002484.

Lai, A.J. GaoS. E. KochY. WangS. PanA. O. FierroC. CuiJ. Min2019Assimilation of Radar Radial Velocity, Reflectivity, and Pseudo–Water Vapor for Convective-Scale NWP in a Variational FrameworkMonthly Weather Review1472877–2900, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-18-0403.1.

Wang, Y.J. GaoP. S. SkinnerK. K. KnopfmeierT. JonesG. CreagerP. L. HeiselmanL. J. Wicker2019Test of a Weather-Adaptive Dual-Resolution Hybrid Warn-on-Forecast Analysis and Forecast System for Several Severe Weather EventsWeather and Forecasting341807–1827, doi:10.1175/WAF-D-19-0071.1.

Pan, S.J. GaoD. J. StensrudX. WangT. A. Jones2018Assimilation of Radar Radial Velocity and Reflectivity, Satellite Cloud Water Path, and Total Precipitable Water for Convective-Scale NWP in OSSEsJournal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology3567–89, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-17-0081.1.

Carlin, J. T.J. GaoJ. C. SnyderA. V. Ryzhkov2017Assimilation of ZDR Columns for Improving the Spinup and Forecast of Convective Storms in Storm-Scale Models: Proof-of-Concept ExperimentsMonthly Weather Review1455033–5057, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-17-0103.1.

Fierro, A. O.J. GaoC. ZieglerK. CalhounE. MansellD. MacGorman2016Assimilation of flash extent data in the variational framework at convection-allowing scales: Proof-of-concept and evaluation for the short term forecast of the 24 May 2011 tornado outbreakMonthly Weather Review1444373–4393, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-16-0053.1.

Gao, J.C. FuD. J. StensrudJ. S. Kain2016OSSEs for an Ensemble 3DVAR Data Assimilation System with Radar Observations of Convective StormsJournal of the Atmospheric Sciences732403–2426, doi:10.1175/JAS-D-15-0311.1.

Li, H.Y. HongP. XieJ. GaoZ. NiuP. KirstetterB. Yong2015Variational merged of hourly gauge-satellite precipitation in China: preliminary resultsJournal of Geophysical Research1209897–9915, doi:10.1002/2015JD023710.

Fierro, A. O.J. GaoC. ZieglerE. MansellD. MacGormanS. Dembek2014Evaluation of a Cloud-Scale Lightning Data Assimilation Technique and a 3DVAR Method for the Analysis and Short-Term Forecast of the 29 June 2012 Derecho EventMonthly Weather Review142183–202, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-13-00142.1.

Gao, J.D. J. Stensrud2014Some Observing System Simulation Experiments with a Hybrid 3DEnVAR System for Stormscale Radar Data AssimilationMonthly Weather Review1423326–3346, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-14-00025.1.

Clark, A. J.J. GaoP. T. MarshT. SmithJ. S. KainJ. CorreiaM. XueF. Kong2013Tornado path length forecasts from 2010-2011 using ensmble updraft helicityWeather and Forecasting28387–407.

Gao, J.T. M. SmithD. J. StensrudC. FuK. CalhounK. L. ManrossJ. BrogdenV. LakshmananY. WangK. W. ThomasK. BrewsterM. Xue2013A Real-Time Weather-Adaptive 3DVAR Analysis System for Severe Weather Detections and WarningsWeather and Forecasting28727–745, doi:10.1175/WAF-D-12-00093.1.

Gao, J.M. XueD. J. Stensrud2013The development of a hybrid EnKF-3DVAR algorithm for storm-scale data assimilationAdvances in Meteorology20131–12, doi:10.1155/2013/512656.

Ge, G.J. GaoM. Xue2013Impacts of Assimilating Measurements of Different State Variables with a Simulated Supercell Storm and Three-Dimensional Variational MethodMonthly Weather Review1412759–2777, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-12-00193.1.

Natenberg, E.J. GaoM. XueF. H. Carr2013Multi-Doppler radar analysis and forecast of a tornadic thunderstorm using a 3D variational data assimilation technique and ARPS modelAdvances in Meteorology20131–18, doi:10.1155/2013/281695.

Gao, J.D. J. Stensrud2012Assimilation of Reflectivity Data in a Convective-Scale, Cycled 3DVAR Framework with Hydrometeor ClassificationJournal of the Atmospheric Sciences691054–1065.

Ge, G.J. GaoM. Xue2012Diagnostic Pressure Equation as a Weak Constraint in a Storm-Scale Three-Dimensional Variational Radar Data Assimilation SystemJournal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology291075–1092, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00201.1.

Gao, J.D. J. StensrudT. M. SmithK. ManrossJ. BrogdenK. Kuhlman2011A Realtime Weather-Adaptive 3DVAR Analysis System with Automatic Storm Positioning and On-demand CapabilityExtended Abstracts, 35th Conference on Radar MeteorologyDenver, CO, USA, AMS, 115.

Stensrud, D. J.J. Gao2010Importance of Horizontally Inhomogeneous Environmental Initial Conditions to Ensemble Storm-Scale Radar Data Assimilation and Very Short-Range ForecastsMonthly Weather Review1381250–1272, doi:10.1175/2009MWR3027.1